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PROJECT TOPIC:  DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR SCREENING HEART DISEASES
Department:  Computer Science
AMOUNT:  3000
FORMART:   MS WORD
PAGES:  82 pages, abstract, chapter 1-5 , APENDIX A source code and APENDIX B output, well reserached and supervised
  information system
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study

Expert System is a computer software application which has the ability to replicate the thinking and reasoning capacity of human-being based on some facts and rules presented to it. Today expert systems have been used in almost all the fields to assist the users in decision making.

Medicine is one of the areas that has benefited from the use of artificial intelligence since the advent of machine intelligence. Different expert systems for diagnosing diseases have been developed. However they are standalone or Web-based systems Jimoh, (2015). They act like experts and provide the expertise decision and assistance for all the fields where human expert and complex decision making is required, like medical diagnosis, expert decision making, policy making, estimating strategies, analysis etc. The use of expert system in medical diagnosis started since early 70’s when MYCIN, an expert system for identifying bacteria causing diseases was developed at Stanford University. Onwards then, various expert systems like Internist – I, CADUCEUS have been developed. 

An expert system solves problems by simulating the human reasoning process and applying specific knowledge and interfaces. Expert systems also use human knowledge to solve problems that normally would require human intelligence.

These expert systems represent the expertise knowledge as data or rules within the computer. These rules and data can be called upon when needed to solve problems. Books and manual guides have a tremendous amount of knowledge but a human has to read and interpret the knowledge for it to be used. A computer program designed to model the problem solving ability of a human expert Sofia, (2013).

Expert systems and Artificial intelligence encompasses such diverse activities as game playing, automated reasoning, natural language, automatic programming, machine learning, robotics and vision, software tools, modelling human performance and expert systems for complex decisions. 

In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert Peter, (2000). Expert System can also be defined as programs that mimic the behaviour of a human expert George F.(2001), Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, represented primarily as if–then rules rather than through conventional procedural code Kahn, (2002). The first expert systems were created in the 1970s and then proliferated in the 1980s. Expert systems were among the first truly successful forms of Artificial Intelligence (AI) software. An expert system is divided into two sub-systems: 

i.Inference engine and the

ii.Knowledge base. 

The goal of such an expert system is to aid the medical experts in making diagnosis of certain diseases or help the ordinary people to diagnose the disease themselves. Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction 

(AMI), commonly known as a heart attack or IM, which occurs when one or more coronary arteries become suddenly blocked resulting in heart muscle death. And results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing the heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) and white blood cells (especially macrophages) in the wall of an artery. 

The resulting ischemia (restriction in blood supply) and ensuing oxygen shortage, if left untreated for a sufficient period of time, can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium).  Expert System for Myocardial infarction is a knowledge- based system capable of making multiple diagnoses in Myocardial infarction Legrand et al. (2007).

Nowadays the use of computer technology in the fields of medicine area diagnosis, treatment of illnesses and patient pursuit has highly increased. Despite the fact that these fields, in which the computers are used, have very high complexity and uncertainty and the use of intelligent systems such as fuzzy logic, artificial neural network and genetic algorithm have been developed.

In domain of heart disease risk, smoke, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, sex and age are main risk factors that affect on heart disease risk. Because of the many and uncertain risk factors in the heart disease risks, sometimes heart disease diagnosis is hard for experts. In the other word, there exists no strict boundary between what is Healthy and what is diseased, thus distinguish is uncertain and vague.

Medical diagnosis and treatment involves the determination of the nature of a disease from observation of signs and symptoms and subsequent treatment of such a disease. It involves the state space search of medical knowledge of a particular disease, patient medical history, patient examination and drug prescription Akinyokun, (1990).

One is considered an expert if he or she has large knowledge of the domain in the form of facts and rules, and in addition has the experience generally not found in the literature of the domain. Experience consists of heuristics, analogies, judgment on the basis of individual decision criteria and so on. Such experience and knowledge enable a human expert to choose promising problem-solving strategies or if these turn out to be unsuccessful, go back to the point from where the strategy failed and try other alternatives.

 


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